Kamakoti committee on Artificial Intelligence
Categorisation of Artificial Intelligence
* Weak artificial intelligence: these are machines and systems behaving intelligently but lacking the consciousness about their actions. These are not able to understand what they are doing. * Strong artificial intelligence: these are machines and systems behaving intelligently and have a consciousness about their actions. These have a subjective mind and they understand about what it’s doing. * Narrow artificial intelligence: these are machines and systems which are limited to a single task or a certain number of tasks. Examples of narrow artificial intelligence include IBM’s Deep Blue. * General artificial intelligence: these are machines and systems having intelligence which can be used for many tasks and actions in a wide range of environment. * Super intelligence: these are machines and systems having general and strong artificial intelligence which has the capability to surpass the intelligence of humans. At present, super intelligence is not a reality and it is still a hypothetical conceptualization.
Types of Artificial Intelligence
* Reactive machine artificial intelligence: these are machines and systems which are unable to use their past experiences for deciding their future actions. * Limited memory artificial intelligence: these are machines and systems having limited memory. These have both pre-programmed knowledge and can also use their past experiences. * Theory of mind artificial intelligence: these are machines and systems which have the capability to interpret the world on their own. These systems can produce information based on their observations. * Self -Awareness artificial intelligence: these are hypothetical systems presently not in existence. These will have consciousness, feelings, and emotions and can interpret the world on their own.
Ethics and Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence has given rise to some ethical issues such as: * Is it possible to ensure that systems with artificial intelligence would act ethically and not pose a danger to humanity or cause any harm intentionally? * Can machines with artificial intelligence develop the same sense as human beings, and thus deserve certain rights? * Is creating artificial intelligence similar to human intelligence is interference to the law of nature?
Examples of Artificial Intelligence
* Automation: it refers to the process of making a system function automatically without human interference. Automation is widely used in many manufacturing industries such as the automobile industry etc. Machines can be programmed for performing repeatable tasks which are usually performed by humans. * Speech recognition: speech recognition is an example of artificial intelligence where the software is programmed for detecting human speech in different languages. Google voice typing is an example of speech recognition system. * Robotics: Robotics deals with the design and manufacture of robots and industries. Artificial intelligence is being used for the development of intelligent robots to perform various tasks which are considered difficult for humans to perform consistently. * Language translation: artificial intelligence now being used for translation of many languages without human interference. Google translator is an example. * Natural language processing: it refers to the processing of human language by computer software. Automatic email spam detection is an example.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
* Healthcare and medicine: Artificial Intelligence can be used for the development of faster, cheaper and accurate diagnosis of diseases. Robots can be used for assisting in surgery and operations. For example, Oxford Hospital researchers have developed artificial intelligence for diagnosis of heart diseases and lung cancer. * Education: Artificial Intelligence can be used for developing customised learning tools, interactive tutoring systems, automatic grading, and rewarding marks etc. It can also be used for developing personalised tutoring systems etc. * Manufacturing sector: robots are being used in the manufacturing sector for performing many automated and complex tasks. The development of new technologies such as 3D printing with the help of artificial intelligence will further propel the use of robots in the manufacturing sector. * Robotic intelligence: Artificial Intelligence can be used to develop intelligent robots for performing tasks given by humans. Robots with efficient processes, sensors, and large memory along with computer programming can exhibit intelligence. In Japan, robots are now being used for doing household works etc. * Cyber security: Artificial Intelligence can provide more teeth to cyber security by development intelligent softwares for detecting Cyber crimes such as hacking, cyber snooping etc. * Agriculture: Artificial Intelligence can be used for providing real-time advisory, detection of pest attacks and soil quality, Precision farming, predicting future crop prices etc. Intelligent robots can be developed for performing various tasks such as sowing of seeds in the field etc. For example, Microsoft has developed ICRISAT AI Sowing App for sending sowing advisory to farmers. * Transportation: Artificial Intelligence can be used for the development of smart traffic management systems, Driverless cars, speed detection systems etc. Google project for the development of driverless cars is an example. * Defense: artificial intelligence has wide applications in defense sector such as for the development of Autonomous Unmanned Weapons, development of Technical artificial intelligence, intelligence analysis of data, cyber defence and cyber warfare etc. * Financial sector: systems with artificial intelligence can be used for providing financial advice, trading on stock exchanges etc. For example, on Wall Street, softwares are widely used for trading purposes. * Energy: Artificial Intelligence can be used for the management of energy infrastructure, development of smart grids, renewable energy management, for building energy efficient and environment friendly buildings etc.
Global developments in Artificial Intelligence
* United States of America published AI report in December 2016. In 2017, US Department of Defence spent more than USD 2.4 billion for the development of artificial intelligence technologies. * China published AI strategy in July 2017. The Chinese government has been providing subsidies to artificial intelligence companies and has been funding research activities in artificial intelligence. * UK government has plans for building 1000 Artificial Intelligence Ph.D. researchers by 2025 through government support. It has planned to provide fellowships to these researchers. It has established the Artificial Intelligence Council and the office of Artificial Intelligence. * UAE government has increased the public investment for the development of artificial intelligence technologies. It has established the ministry of Artificial Intelligence.
Kamakoti committee on Artificial Intelligence
Government had set up an artificial intelligence task force under thechairmanship of V.Kamakoti for exploring the possibilities of leveragingartificial intelligence in various fields. Recommendations of the committeeare: * Setting up digital data banks, marketplaces, and exchanges for making the cross-industry information available. * Setting up data ombudsman for dealing with data related grievances. * Ensuring sufficient funding for research and development. * To set up National Artificial Intelligence Mission. * It recommended for attention in 10 sectors which include Agriculture, Education, Manufacturing, Healthcare, Public utility services, Fintech, Environment, National security, Accessible Technology for differently abled persons, and Retail / Customer engagement.
National Strategy on Artificial Intelligence
Niti Aayog came up with a discussion paper on the national strategy onartificial intelligence which identifies 5 core sectors for the application ofAI. The five core areas for application of AI are: * Agriculture: to increase farmers income, reduce wastage of produce and increase farm productivity. * Healthcare: making quality healthcare more accessible and affordable. * Education: to increase access education, and improve the quality of education. * Smart mobility and transportation: use of artificial intelligence for developing smarter, safer and better modes of transportation and to deal with traffic congestion problems. * Smart cities and infrastructure: application of artificial intelligence for ensuring efficient connectivity for the urban population.
What Is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence inmachines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. Theterm may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with ahuman mind such as learning and problem-solving.The ideal characteristic of artificial intelligence is its ability torationalize and take actions that have the best chance of achieving a specificgoal. A subset of artificial intelligence is machine learning, which refers tothe concept that computer programs can automatically learn from and adapt tonew data without being assisted by humans. Deep learning techniques enablethis automatic learning through the absorption of huge amounts of unstructureddata such as text, images, or video.
Understanding Artificial Intelligence (AI)
When most people hear the term artificial intelligence, the first thing theyusually think of is robots. That’s because big-budget films and novels weavestories about human-like machines that wreak havoc on Earth. But nothing couldbe further from the truth.Artificial intelligence is based on the principle that human intelligence canbe defined in a way that a machine can easily mimic it and execute tasks, fromthe most simple to those that are even more complex. The goals of artificialintelligence include mimicking human cognitive activity. Researchers anddevelopers in the field are making surprisingly rapid strides in mimickingactivities such as learning, reasoning, and perception, to the extent thatthese can be concretely defined. Some believe that innovators may soon be ableto develop systems that exceed the capacity of humans to learn or reason outany subject. But others remain skeptical because all cognitive activity islaced with value judgments that are subject to human experience.As technology advances, previous benchmarks that defined artificialintelligence become outdated. For example, machines that calculate basicfunctions or recognize text through optical character recognition are nolonger considered to embody artificial intelligence, since this function isnow taken for granted as an inherent computer function.AI is continuously evolving to benefit many different industries. Machines arewired using a cross-disciplinary approach based on mathematics, computerscience, linguistics, psychology, and more.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
The applications for artificial intelligence are endless. The technology canbe applied to many different sectors and industries. AI is being tested andused in the healthcare industry for dosing drugs and different treatment inpatients, and for surgical procedures in the operating room.Other examples of machines with artificial intelligence include computers thatplay chess and self-driving cars. Each of these machines must weigh theconsequences of any action they take, as each action will impact the endresult. In chess, the end result is winning the game. For self-driving cars,the computer system must account for all external data and compute it to actin a way that prevents a collision.Artificial intelligence also has applications in the financial industry, whereit is used to detect and flag activity in banking and finance such as unusualdebit card usage and large account deposits—all of which help a bank’s frauddepartment. Applications for AI are also being used to help streamline andmake trading easier. This is done by making supply, demand, and pricing ofsecurities easier to estimate.
Categorization of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence can be divided into two different categories: weak andstrong. Weak artificial intelligence embodies a system designed to carry outone particular job. Weak AI systems include video games such as the chessexample from above and personal assistants such as Amazon’s Alexa and Apple’sSiri. You ask the assistant a question, it answers it for you.Strong artificial intelligence systems are systems that carry on the tasksconsidered to be human-like. These tend to be more complex and complicatedsystems. They are programmed to handle situations in which they may berequired to problem solve without having a person intervene. These kinds ofsystems can be found in applications like self-driving cars or in hospitaloperating rooms.